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What are Nerve Cells, Neurons & Synapses? | Physiology | Biology | FuseSchool

October 14, 2019


From our introduction to the nervous system video You should already know that the nervous system is essentially a massive complex Body-Wide communication system Messages are relayed to the central nervous system through Sensory Neurons So stimulus is detected by a receptor which sends the electrical impulse message along a sensory neuron to the central nervous system The central nervous system then relays the message by motor neurons to effectors which provide a response such as telling your legs to run In this video we are going to look at the nervous system in more detail including the different nerve cells and the structure To clarify nerve cells are known as neurons There are three different types Sensory intermediate or Relay and Motor Neurons These specialized cells carry information as tiny electrical impulses and make up the nervous system Sensory neurons carry signals from Receptors to the Spinal Cord and Brain Intermediate and relay neurons carry messages from one part of the central nervous system to another the Motor Neurons carry signals from the Central nervous system to effectors They will have three main components a cell body with a nucleus Then drums and dendrites which are the input of the neuron? they receive information from other neurons or the external environment and transfer this information to the cell body and Axons which Carry the signal away from the cell body Axons are surrounded by an insulating sheath which speeds up the rate of conduction. It makes the nerve impulses travel faster Because the sensory neurons are the ones that detect the stimulus they have receptors at the end of their fibers Whereas because motor neurons trigger the reaction they have motor in plates which cause muscle fibers to contract or glands to secrete hormones The relay neurons make connections with other neurons across gaps that are called synapses So let’s have a look at how synapses work Synapses are a junction between two adjacent neurons and the electrical impulse has to cross the junction to carry on its journey The electrical Impulse arrives along an axon this triggers the release of a chemical Neurotransmitter which diffuses across the synapse and binds with the receptors on the Membrane of the next neuron This stimulates the second neuron to generate a new electrical signal Synapses, not only connect two or more JSon Neurons together But they also allow the nerve signals to travel in one direction only and they also control the speed of the signal in In another video we will look at reflex reactions, and what happens when a very quick response is needed So from this video. You should know that there are three different types of neuron or nerve cells The Sensory Neuron Which detects the signal the relay or intermediate neuron and the motor Neurons which Trigger the response You should also know how synapses work transmitting the impulse between neurons

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5 Comments

  • Reply Good Sir September 20, 2016 at 8:36 am

    At 0:26 You say "Some stimuluses". It's called stimuli not stimuluses

  • Reply VIXEN MAXIMUS January 11, 2017 at 7:45 am

    ey b0ss

  • Reply Oliver S November 2, 2017 at 6:07 pm

    thanks this was really helpful!

  • Reply Hollie House February 6, 2018 at 12:00 pm

    This is a brilliant video helping me with my anatomy and physiology study. Please slow it down, I paused and started again about 50 times 😂

  • Reply M Herbert May 4, 2018 at 9:09 am

    Where is the previous video mentioned at the start?

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