Articles, Blog

Genetic Engineering

October 12, 2019

[MUSIC PLAYING] Hey there. You may be wondering
what you’re doing at the front of a
bioengineering lab, and why a total stranger is
talking to you right now. But I’m here to talk about
some of the awesome experiments that Herbert Boyer and Stanley
Cohen did in the 1970s. You might be thinking to
yourself, uh– the ’70s? Isn’t that like, when
the dinosaurs lived? Boring. Well, have you ever
gotten a vaccine or eaten groceries
from a grocery store? That’s all thanks to
some of the experiments that these two lab
pals did in the ’70s, where they took enzymes
that cut DNA, and were able to enter these pieces
into new bacterial DNA. They pioneered the field
of genetic engineering. And thanks to all the
work that they did, we have medications for people
with diabetes and heart attack victims. You know what? Why don’t you guys
just follow me inside. So the first thing that
Cohen and Boyer did was they took DNA from a frog
and cut it up into pieces. I should probably
explain to you guys what’s going on in this tube. Here’s some DNA from the frog. It encodes certain traits that
affect how the frog develops, how it survives, how it looks. Now there’s a piece of DNA
in this genome whose job is to encode for certain proteins
that the frog uses to survive. We’re going to cut this piece
out using a restriction enzyme. This is the thing
that Boyer discovered. It’s kind of like
a pair of scissors. By cutting the DNA
at specific points, we can get different pieces. Now there are tons of different
kinds of restriction enzymes, and they all cut in
different places in DNA. Our enzyme that we’re using
today is called EcoR1. Now this piece of DNA
has more than one spot that EcoR1 can cut, as
shown by the dotted lines. So we’re going to end up
with other pieces of DNA in addition to the
one we actually want. Now that’s actually
OK, because we’re going to deal with
that problem later. What’s going on the tube is
we’re literally just cutting up our piece of DNA,
just like this. Now here’s a tube
full of plasma. It’s basically a
circular ring of DNA that can exist in bacteria. And it basically encodes
for certain traits that affect how bacteria
look, or act, or survive. Now to add our DNA from the
frog DNA to our bacterial DNA, we need to cut the
plasmid open too. So we’ve got to add
our EcoR1 scissors, and they’re going
to cut at this site. You let this reaction proceed,
letting all the ingredients– the plasmids, the restriction
enzyme, and some water and buffers to hang out together
until all the plasmids are cut like this. Now we need to add the
DNA pieces from the frog and allow them the pieces
to join our cut plasmids. Here’s what’s going
on in the tube now. I’ve got pieces of frog DNA. And I’ve got cut
plasmids, like this. I need to add this
guy into this plasmid. And the way I’m going to do
that is by adding an enzyme called DNA ligase. This enzyme kind
of acts like tape, and it fixes the DNA
insert into the plasmid. Now another important
thing about the plasmid itself is that it
carries a marker that makes it resistant to a certain
kind of antibiotic called tetracycline. This will come in
handy in a little bit. After a little while, we’ll have
a couple types of DNA going on. This is the one that we want. It’s plasmid, and it has
the purple frog DNA insert. But we’ll also get
things like this. We’ll get plasmids that had
other parts of the frog’s genome inserted into it. And we’ll also get
plasmids that just close back up on themselves. So now that we have
these new plasmids, we’ve gotta stick them
into some bacteria. Here we’re gonna
take some E. coli. As you can see, it already
has some DNA in it. The important thing
about these guys is that they’ll
actually die if you add the tetracycline
antibiotic, which we talked about earlier, to them. What Boyer and Cohen did to get
the plasmids inside of these E. coli is that they cooled all
the cells down, and then quickly heated them up, creating little
holes in the cell membrane. Then the plasmids could slip
through and get into the cell. These are the kind of
bacteria that we have now. Bacteria that got the
plasmid we wanted. These are the guys we wanted. But we’ll also get bacteria
that got the plasmids that we didn’t want. Say, this one with the
wrong piece of DNA, or this one with just a plain
plasmid without any frog DNA. And more than likely, we’ll get
ones that just didn’t pick up any of the plasmids. Now what I’m going to do
next is plate these cells on some tetracycline
agar plates, which is basically
some fancy jello that has antibiotic in it. So these guys won’t
be able to grow. But these guys will. I’ve plated the E. coli
that we transformed with our new plasmids
onto this plate, which has tetracycline in it. We’re going to let this
sit in the incubator overnight and allow
our bacteria to grow. And we’ll check on it
again in the morning. Alright. So as you can tell,
we’ve definitely got some colonies that grew
on our plate overnight. So now the problem
that we have is we need to be able to
distinguish the bacteria that got these plasmids
from the ones that got these plasmids, which don’t
have our frog DNA in them. So what we’re going to do
is use the same techniques that we did at the very
beginning of this experiment, and extract the plasmids
from all these bacteria. Then we’re going to use the
same restriction enzymes and cut up these plasmids. You might be able to notice
that our frog purple insert is a different size than the pink
that comes from the background frog DNA. So what we can use is
something called a gel box, and use a technique called
gel electrophoresis. And what it’s
going to do is it’s going to separate our
different pieces of DNA out. And from this
experiment, we’ll be able to tell the plasmids
that took up the frog DNA from the ones that didn’t,
or s the ones that just closed up on themselves. Thanks to these cloning
techniques that me and my buddy developed, the field of genetic
engineering was pioneered. Things like insulin are
being made these days using these very
same techniques. Well, that’s all I’ve
got time for today, guys. Thanks for stopping by. Hopefully you have a
better appreciation for some of the
cloning techniques you saw today, and just
have a better understanding of genetic engineering. See you guys later. [MUSIC PLAYING]

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  • Reply Ankit Kumar November 25, 2016 at 6:32 am

    Very Nice… I loved it…

  • Reply Nyanna Ross December 3, 2016 at 11:53 pm

    You're awesome. I wanna do what you do XD fit in video making with my job.

  • Reply Srishti Kumar December 5, 2016 at 10:20 pm

    This was AMAZING! Your explanations was crystal clear (and really creative) and it was really neat seeing you do the same thing in the lab. Looking forward to more!

  • Reply Ryan R December 30, 2016 at 2:07 am

    I want to make-out with you

  • Reply _bio macromolecules January 4, 2017 at 1:51 pm

    what a beautiful video! humour is definitely the way to go when the subject appears to be dreary. thanks for the effort guys!

  • Reply Deonarayan Singh January 19, 2017 at 6:30 am


  • Reply moosa kazim January 19, 2017 at 2:47 pm

    very osome helped alot

  • Reply Captain George Mainwaring February 15, 2017 at 11:45 am

    Beauty wih brain and fun

  • Reply Sahra H February 22, 2017 at 9:32 pm

    you did a great job and effort into this video! I appreciate it

  • Reply Harshrajsinh Jadeja March 3, 2017 at 7:56 am

    Tax for *

  • Reply Yakov Olivarria March 22, 2017 at 3:34 pm

    PULL UP SKRT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. This could be a cringe compilation. SKRT

  • Reply Yakov Olivarria March 22, 2017 at 3:38 pm

    4:18 They want to be star wars empire so bad

  • Reply Yakov Olivarria March 22, 2017 at 3:41 pm

    6:51 Gasp Albert Einstein is alive

  • Reply Chandra Venkatraman March 25, 2017 at 4:40 pm

    Thank you, this helped me understand REALLY well. It also helped me to answer the toughest questions in my exam.

  • Reply Viktor D.S. March 25, 2017 at 7:18 pm

    "Uh, the 70's? Isn't that when the dinosaurs lived? Boring!" Totally accurate representation of today's teens lol

  • Reply Viktor D.S. March 25, 2017 at 7:19 pm

    "Uh, the 70's? Isn't that when the dinosaurs lived? Boring!" Totally accurate representation of today's teens.

  • Reply Andrew Clark April 3, 2017 at 10:39 am

    great video, shitty piano music was distracting as fuck you should restriction enzyme that the fuck out

  • Reply Dara Rithvika April 3, 2017 at 7:23 pm

    thank you so much this helped me to uderstand easily more then lot of books ! can pls add the next steps too in detail

  • Reply dvalle1100 April 4, 2017 at 5:56 am

    This video is adorable…so cute…I love the construction paper models!!!

  • Reply Ramandeep Singh April 27, 2017 at 4:21 am

    Thank you…very well designed tutorial…informative and fun to watch….keep it up….

  • Reply David Schmidt May 3, 2017 at 4:01 am

    She's cute and intelligent, a good natural teacher, but the soundtrack was poorly done and quite distracting.

  • Reply shreya krishna May 5, 2017 at 3:05 pm

    You are very creative! Loved the video and got to learn too 🙂 Keep up the great work

  • Reply Monty Kay May 8, 2017 at 4:16 pm

    Is it just me, or my ego-centrism that makes me feel like almost everyone is into Genetic engineering? I am a Grad student in Genetics from NC, and ever since I started working with it, I feel everyone is getting interested in this field.

  • Reply Adrian Cueto May 29, 2017 at 3:47 am

    That "yay" scared the fuck out of me

  • Reply sasha June 6, 2017 at 10:13 am

    haha loved the cut outs of the plasmid and dna, makes it super easy to visualise whats going on

  • Reply TopTea01 June 9, 2017 at 12:09 pm

    after watching this i want to die

  • Reply caroldoggo June 11, 2017 at 5:15 pm

    Aren't the plasmids ampicillin resistant other than tetracycline resistant? Also, how are different plasmids distinguished from each other? What does the gel electrophoresis do?

  • Reply Visceral June 19, 2017 at 6:39 am

    this video was the best out of all of the rest

  • Reply Jake Coveney June 27, 2017 at 10:39 pm


  • Reply Ian Pastis July 14, 2017 at 1:41 am

    @MITK12Videos, hey awesome video, I want to present it to my class, cool?

  • Reply The Duchess July 29, 2017 at 11:17 pm

    This woman is not ATTRACTIVE at all! Genetic engineering was started in Egypt first , ,all throughout the planet by OUR ancestors. Anything that Europeans do will always be USED to oppress, destroy and CONTROLL so called black people. These people are intellectual vampires who feed off of and imitate the old scientific discoveries of
    OUR 'African" ancestors. They are NOT original inventors of anything!

  • Reply jamalellden adam August 7, 2017 at 5:24 pm

    really good jop.

  • Reply Leane Dias September 3, 2017 at 4:42 am

    wow u just summarized a whole chapter (that was super hard before this video)! thanks for helping me pass!

  • Reply Wolfania September 27, 2017 at 4:21 am

    very well explained!

  • Reply JAGJEET SINGH October 19, 2017 at 7:07 am

    awsm video

  • Reply Manisha November 17, 2017 at 5:11 pm

    I understood the concept soooooooooooooooooooooooooooo………………………….. well

  • Reply Secret Senpai December 5, 2017 at 4:44 pm

    Why is everyone in the comments so creepy?

  • Reply Google I don't want to use my name January 16, 2018 at 6:18 am


  • Reply Superjellostar January 21, 2018 at 5:48 am

    thankyou very muchie!

  • Reply Joshua Plunto January 30, 2018 at 1:25 am

    You rock!! And btw….made clear questions I had WHILE DOING THESE TECHNIQUES a million years ago….before utube. I never quite realized HOW my gels differentiated my clones until now. And now I feel dumb bc it was so obvious the whole time. Forest for the trees…and all that, I guess.

  • Reply Malav Shah January 30, 2018 at 8:42 am

    Fucking wicked #$$!$! $!!!!!!………I love the way you explain!

  • Reply Netrawati Chimanoji February 9, 2018 at 6:51 pm

    Love u it was awesome

  • Reply Tanmoy Saha February 12, 2018 at 2:20 pm

    this is best one ..thank you

  • Reply _ February 17, 2018 at 3:32 pm

    The last step could have just been putting the bacteria into a fluid containing ampicillin. The ones that didn't take up the plasmids (containing the ampicillin resistance gene) would've simply been destroyed.

  • Reply saraswathi R February 22, 2018 at 4:46 am

    Good video

  • Reply Abhijeet Kumar April 15, 2018 at 3:10 pm

    Thanks for uploading this video. The way you told everything was amazing. Really helpful.

  • Reply Eloz Ortiz April 16, 2018 at 4:24 am

    Excellent illustration of Recombinant DNA

  • Reply crystalcleargirl07 May 6, 2018 at 5:44 pm

    Holy moly, this was amazing ☑️👩‍🔬🙌🎊🎈

  • Reply Afridi Johnson May 7, 2018 at 3:33 pm

    Watching in 2018 ! <3 Thanks Alot

  • Reply Cyndi Dickerson May 10, 2018 at 7:20 am

    I love it! It would have been helpful to show how you can run the restricted frog DNA and choose the appropriately-sized fragment for insertion into the plasmid, too.

  • Reply Ebunoluwa Taiwo May 15, 2018 at 8:54 am

    Thank you my GCSE science exam is today and I should be in school but I'm really revising and this is going to help so much

  • Reply Love yourself PEACE. May 24, 2018 at 11:55 am

    Thank youuuuuuuuuuuu so well explained

  • Reply Jerry Lee Lewis June 5, 2018 at 1:15 pm

    6:17 pianist has a seizure

  • Reply Dhruv Bala June 7, 2018 at 12:21 am

    This was amazing! Thanks!

  • Reply Elizabeth Asesor July 9, 2018 at 5:56 pm

    Very good video, the music in the back ground though was bad, threw me off and it was hard to focus on something I wanted to learn. Next time dont use the music more than like am exclamation mark, short and done. Bit I got the main idea. Thanks

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  • Reply Victor Ramirez October 2, 2018 at 7:29 pm

    the background its too loud, but like you vids

  • Reply Dawn Frank November 23, 2018 at 2:53 am

    This is an amazing video!!

  • Reply Ta-Ta Huang December 10, 2018 at 9:40 pm

    thank you xd!!

  • Reply Latane Zimbardo January 12, 2019 at 7:35 pm

    i assume u use pcr to replicate those DNA fragments?

  • Reply Pakistan Lahore February 2, 2019 at 12:43 am

    I am the best genetic engineer
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    Am expert memory transfer human to animal

  • Reply DiamondRose February 9, 2019 at 9:13 pm

    I need to show this to my teacher! It’s perfect for are unit rn

  • Reply Vinayak Mourya March 10, 2019 at 1:01 pm

    Very helpful.Thanks

  • Reply Queen Myanni April 2, 2019 at 1:36 am

    So this is what my teacher spent two hours TRYING to teach me today???? lmao

  • Reply sriram 22 Rock April 7, 2019 at 5:32 pm

    Mam finally u made it, which had not been happen's to me by any lecture 😂

  • Reply Zalicoh April 17, 2019 at 1:42 am

    0:25 snooki gone wrong

  • Reply Matheus T. May 17, 2019 at 3:26 pm

    watching this video from Brazil and im so happy to learn with people who brings teachings from MIT

  • Reply Mercurio Científico May 18, 2019 at 11:31 am

    Your video is really interesting and explains things well. But l have a question that why don't first use gel electrophoresis to identify the frog gene instead of inserting all the gene into the bacteria and then cut it off and then identify? It seems more intuitive that we first find the right gene and then insert it into bacteria. And it may save bacteria😄. I am a year1 undergraduate student and can someone help me? Thank you very much!

  • Reply Kamaboko Gonpachiro June 8, 2019 at 1:48 pm

    It's been 8 years

  • Reply Nihaal Nihu July 17, 2019 at 3:44 pm

    Thank u sister u made it easy to understand💙

  • Reply Martin Z July 26, 2019 at 3:10 am

    good video butthe music is way too loud at times and just makes it hard to focus on the content of the video. surprised noone bothered to check the music volume levels before uploading.

  • Reply Taylor Timbrook July 28, 2019 at 6:51 pm

    Me: a culinary student
    Random questions: how the f**k are gmo foods even made?
    Me: falls into hole… lol

  • Reply Aslam Ali August 24, 2019 at 12:24 am

    thanks it so much helpful and fun too!!

  • Reply NASHRAH ZAIDI September 15, 2019 at 3:32 am

    This is really awesome…. keep posting

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