Articles, Blog

Alternative Starches: How to thicken sauces without flour

November 19, 2019

If you want to make a gravy-type sauce without
the use of wheat flour as a thickener, you have so many good options. Whether you’re
cooking for somebody with celiac disease, or you just want to try some different textures,
I’m going to show you a few experiments with some widely-available things like cornstarch
and arrowroot — also, we’ll examine some more exotic options, like xanthan gum and
agar agar. “Please, agar agar is my father. Call me agar.” First, I think it’ll help to just remind ourselves
how starches thicken sauces in the first place. Let’s get our Alton Brown on. The big white
cotton balls there represent the water-based liquid that we’re going to try to thicken
— could be meat drippings, could be dissolved fond, milk, wine, whatever. All the water
molecules are spread out in a thin layer because there’s not much holding them together. The
sauce is loose, thin. Then we throw some starch into our sauce. These are tightly-packed carbohydrate
granules — little balls of sugar polymers that naturally occur in lots of plants, not
just wheat. Then we apply some heat to the sauce, the starch granules unravel and explode.
This is called gelatinization. Then you stir the mixture and the exploded starches bond
with the water and everything gets tangled together in a big web that traps the water
molecules in three dimensions — they’re heaped up on top of each other now, and our
sauce is thick. Thickeners can also keep fats from seperating
out of your sauce. If you add oil to your water-based sauce, it will naturally just
float to the top in a grease layer, because fat molecules are light and hydrophobic. But
add some starch and some heat — the granules explode and the water and fat molecules alike
are trapped in the same web, together. It’s not the most stable sauce ever, but starch
does a pretty good job of keeping sauces from separating. Now, not all of these starches are the same.
Some are little straight chains of glucose — that’s amylose. And some are big branched
chains of glucose called amylopectin. The primary practical difference between the various
kinds of cooking starches is the relative proportion of amylose and amylopectin within
them. The just have different properties in the pan, depending on that relative proportion. Now, when you thicken a sauce with when flour,
the most common way you do it is by making a roux. You melt some butter into a pan, stir
in enough flour to make a paste, you cook it for a minute, maybe you let it brown depending
on the flavor and color your after, then you gradually whisk in enough liquid to get the
sauce consistency you want, being sure to bring it to a boil, which is the temperature
that wheat starch needs in order to gelatinize. However, the most common way that people thicken
with alternative starches is with a slurry, and we’ll start with cornstarch. Brits would
call this corn flour, and that’s technically more accurate. Flour is a grain, root, bean,
etc that has been ground up into a dry powder. It might be the whole grain, as in the case
of whole wheat flour, or it might just be the white part of the grain, the endosperm,
in the case of this stuff, which is white wheat flour. Regardless, flour has stuff in
it other than just starch, most notably protein. Products that are sold as “starch” and not
“flour” generally have only starch in there — the starch has been isolated from the
other stuff, via some kind of chemical or physical process. “Cornstarch,” despite its
U.S. name, is not refined. It’s just white corn flour, but because corn endosperm naturally
has so much more starch in it than anything else, it basically functions the way an isolated
starch would, so I’m guessing that’s why it’s labeled as cornstarch in the states, even
though that’s technically wrong. Anyway. When people thicken with starches that aren’t flour,
they usually do it by means of a slurry. Gonna take a little bit of cornstarch, put
it into any kind of small container. I like to do it in a mason jar. In then you’ve gotta
mix in some liquid, and that liquid can’t be hot. Basically equal parts starch and liquid.
And then you could either mix that around really vigorously, or what you can do with
a mason jar or any other lidded container is … shake it up. Totally smooth. Then you just go over to the hot liquid that
you’re using for your sauce — I’m just using cartoned beef broth for all of these experiments
— and you just stir in enough slurry to get the thickness that you want. Different
starches gelatinize at different temperatures — cornstarch does it at slightly less than
a boil. The reason you do the slurry is to get starch
granules separated from each other. If you threw dry starch or flour directly into the
hot liquid, it would clump up — your sauce would be lumpy. That’s one reason that we
mix wheat flour into a roux — to get all the granules dispersed in the fat, away from
each other so that they won’t clump when the liquid hits the pan. But you can also use a wheat flour slurry
to thicken a sauce. That’s what this is. The problem is that, if you taste it, that sauce
has an unpleasant raw flour taste, which is a real thing. You’d have to simmer this for
a while to cook out that flavor, whereas if you cook the flour in a roux, that raw taste
goes away really really fast. Cooking flour in a roux does two other things
for you, though. If you let it brown a bit, it gives your sauce a nice brown color — without
using that bizarre “gravy browning” stuff that the Brits like to use. It’s basically
caramel water. Anyway, also, if you let your roux really brown, it gives the sauce a toasty
caramelized flavor. This phenomenon is used to the max in Cajun food — a culinary tradition
based on all of the different flavors and textures you can get by browning roux to varying
extents. So, since roux tastes good, I’ve always wondered
why people make a slurry with cornstarch instead of making a roux with it. Let’s try. Oh, hi! I guess you caught me editing myself.
I’ve just been listening to this with my new headphones, which are courtesy of the sponsor
of this video — Raycon. Raycon’s a cool company founded by Ray J. He was sick of premium
audio being so over-priced, so he got with some audio engineers and he came up with these.
Perfect bluetooth pairing — I don’t have wires dangling in my way. There’s a microphone
in them for phone calls, and you know, they sound just as good as other premium audio
brands, but start at about half the price. For video production purposes, what’s really
nice is the flawless noise-isolating fit. I can be reasonably assured that what I’m
hearing in my headphones is what came through my microphones, and not the sound that’s just
around me in the room. Click my link in the description below to get access to Raycon’s
Black Friday and Cyber Monday deals. I can’t even tell you how good the deals are gonna
be — you’re gonna have to check it out on the site. Anyway, we were about to hear,
see and smell what happens when you try to make a roux out of cornstarch. Hmm, it’s putting off some weird smells. Whisk
in the broth, heat it up to gelatinize, and give it a taste. That has a kinda funny flavor
to it, but frankly I think that cornstarch always has a kinda funny flavor to it. Some
people describe it as chalky, or I kinda think of it as rubbery or kind of chemically. Anyway,
it’s not a really big deal and it goes away after you cook it for awhile. One thing I like about the cornstarch roux
vs the cornstarch slurry is the roux version is more opaque. Normally cornstarch-thickened
sauces are kinda clear, I would guess because cornstarch has so little protein in it, and
if you’re trying to make gravy, clear gravy is kinda weird. Let’s try something else. This is potato starch, very common in U.S.
grocery stores. If it’s not next to the cornstarch, it might be in a kosher foods section. Jews
aren’t supposed to eat grains at Passover, so potato starch. Slurry goes in. That thickens at a way lower
temperature, and it is clear as glass. It also doesn’t have any funny flavor. Totally
tasteless. People say that you shouldn’t bring potato starch to a full boil because that’ll
cause it to break down quickly. If you cook any starch long and hot enough,
those glucose chains will start to break apart and then water molecules fall out of the web.
The sauce thins out again. But I boiled this for a very long time, adding
water to compensate for evaporation, and I didn’t really observe any breakdown. I did
the same thing with my cornstarch, too. I boiled it hard for like 20 minutes, nothing
seemed to thin out. But even if it did, you could just mix in a little bit more slurry
to compensate. I think a lot of the differences between different
food starches that you read about are really only an issue when you’re making food at a
commercial or industrial scale, when very tiny differences can multiply into huge differences.
When you’re cooking at home, things are just way less sensitive, and you can easily compensate
for stuff. OK, now things get interesting when we try
making a roux out of the potato starch. Browned potatoes taste really good, so I’m betting
this is gonna taste really good, and indeed, the resulting sauce is delicious. It’s still
a little unnervingly clear, but man that tastes really good. We get very similar results from rice flour.
Again, a pretty widely-available item. It’s not an isolated starch — it’s just ground-up
white rice. Slurry goes in. That has to come to a good boil before it thickens, and it’s
slightly more opaque, probably because it’s a flour — there’s stuff in there other than
just starch. Totally neutral flavor. But when we make the roux with rice flour, we let it
brown a little bit, whisk in the broth, and that is again, delicious. No surprise there,
right? Rice that has been browned always tastes good, and I like that this version is not
as translucent as the potato starch gravy. That’s good gravy. Let’s run through some other starches real
quick. Here’s tapioca — a starch extracted from
the tuber known as cassava or yuca. In the slurry goes, very nice clear sauce, but I
think it has kind of an unpleasant, slimy texture on the tongue. It’s also reputed to
do weird things when you stir it a lot while cooking, it kinda clumps up. Not a fan. Tapioca is often used in desserts, like fruit
pie fillings. It is reputed to freeze and thaw really well. It’s also supposed to stand
up to acid really well. Acid can break down starches and thin them out. Is that danger
relevant to sauce-making? Well, if we put some vinegar and a pinch of sugar into this
gravy, you have the base of like half the gloopy sauces you know and love from Chinese-American-style
restaurants. Pretty tasty stuff. I tried making the same sauce with cornstarch,
which is reputed to be easily broken down by acid, and I noticed no such problems. Maybe
a savory sauce just isn’t acidic enough to break anything down. And if the sauce did
thin out, you could just put in more slurry. Cornstarch: very popular in Chinese-American
restaurants. Here’s arrowroot starch. I think that the
dried product has this weird minty smell, but the sauce thickened with the slurry is
nice and clear and has a neutral flavor. People say that arrowroot sauces don’t reheat well
— they break down easily. Well let’s try pouring this off, refrigerating it for a while
and then reheating it in the microwave. I notice no thinning at all. In fact, it’s nice
that it reheats smooth. When you reheat sauces made with wheat flour
or cornstarch, I often find that I can’t get them smooth again, no matter how hot I get
them. This is the cornstarch-thickened sauce — really gloppy and jelly-like, even though
it’s really hot. Not nice. Arrowroot has another bad reputation, which
is that it does weird things in dairy. I’m just thickening some milk with arrowroot slurry
and indeed, that has a super weird, slimy texture. No good. Alright, so those are the big root, tuber
and grain starches. Let’s experiment with some more exotic stuff. This is xanthin gum.
I bought this down at my normal grocery store the other day. It is a very popular additive
in industrial prepared foods. It’s not technically a starch. It’s another kind of polysaccharide
made by fermenting sugars with a particular kind of bacteria. First I tried making a slurry with it, and
that did not work at all. It clumped up the second it hit the water in the jar. The package
suggests mixing it in with an oil slurry instead, and indeed, xanthin gum disperses very easily
and smoothly into fat. You gotta give it a few minutes to gel up, but then a tiny amount
of it has incredible thickening power, and that sauce has a really pleasant, smooth mouthfeel.
Xanthan gum is often used in ice cream for that nice smooth mouthfeel it gives. I figured because it disperses so well in
fat, maybe it’d work well in a roux. Yes, I made xanthan gum roux, and the resulting
gravy had a totally different texture — chalky, powdery, gross. Couldn’t tell you why that
happened, but don’t do it. One thing I can tell you about xanthan gum
is that you don’t have to get it hot. It gels at virtually any temperature. I’ll show you.
That’s room-temperature broth. Scatter in some xanthan gum, it clumps up really bad
in water, but if you stir it around and then let it sit for a few minutes, it thickens
up without any cooking at all. Now I’ve seen so-called “molecular gastronomy” chefs do
this and then either try to blend out those lumps with an immersion blender or strain
them out. But, remember that zanthan gum does dissolve
very smoothly in fat. There, you can see why this stuff is a very popular thickener in
pre-packaged salad dressings. We’ll mix that oil into the broth, let it sit for a few minutes
and it gels right up. It looks kinda gritty, like apple sauce, but tastes smooth. Now,
watch this, I’m gonna get it really hot in the microwave, and the texture is exactly
the same. That is exciting. When you thicken a sauce with a starch, the
viscosity varies tremendously depending on the sauce’s temperature. That’s why when you
make, say, a pot pie, you gotta let it cool a long time before you scoop it out, otherwise
the sauce will just fall right off the other ingredients and run out all over the plate.
If you thickened your sauce with xanthan gum, it would be the same thickness regardless
of whether it was pipping hot or lukewarm. That’s awesome, so this is something that
I’m gonna need to experiment with more down the road. One more experiment right though now — agar
agar. “Call me agar.” This is a mixture of a polysaccharide and a pectin derived from
algae. It’s used in packaged foods a lot, and it’s also a vegan replacement for gelatin,
which comes from animals. Agar powder dissolves really easily into water.
You do not have to make a slurry with it. And when you bring it to a boil, the sauce
has this texture of a reduced meat stock — more kinda unctuous than thick. But let’s try the
Heston Blumenthal trick. Heston boils in some agar, then he puts the sauce in a jug and
chills it. Now it’s like a very stiff jello, but unlike jello, it is heat resistant. That
will not melt when you get it hot again. So to turn it into a sauce, Heston busts it up
with a stick blender. And that looks like regurgitated dog food. And the texture is
repulsive — a foam made up if tiny little rubber beads. Thinning it out with more broth
does not help. Sorry, Heston, I think I did it wrong. Come
to think of it, when I saw him doing this on one of his shows, he was doing it with
a dairy-based sauce, and I’ve read that agar reacts differently with dairy. I might have
also just used way too much. More experimentation is needed there, but I hope you’ll find my
more successful experiments here to be useful to you. I think the big takeaway here is that there
are lots of food starches, and they all work. But, since Thanksgiving is coming up here
in the states, I’ll just stress again that if you need to make a gluten-free gravy, you
can try making your roux with rice flour or potato starch — I’d do the rice flour because
it’s more opaque. That makes a really delicious gravy. Nobody is gonna miss the wheat.

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  • Reply Matando November 19, 2019 at 8:16 pm

    When I started watching cooking videos on YouTube I was surprised how many people used flour to thicken gravys, as I had never heard of doing that. My family has always used corn starch so when my Grandfather and Mother were teaching me how to cook (fun memories) I never saw/heard anything different.

  • Reply Alyssa Foley November 19, 2019 at 8:18 pm

    So yuuumy

  • Reply fsdgadfase November 19, 2019 at 8:19 pm


  • Reply Miri حسان November 19, 2019 at 8:20 pm

    I’m the useless early comment you are looking for.

  • Reply Joshua O'Neill November 19, 2019 at 8:24 pm

    3:50 To quote Chef John the olllll' shake-a shake-a

  • Reply Carlo Rufio November 19, 2019 at 8:27 pm


  • Reply the1whoknox November 19, 2019 at 8:28 pm

    Brit here ,gravy Browning never used or heard of it might be a northern thing

  • Reply 176Blue November 19, 2019 at 8:32 pm

    Where was this last night when I was making chicken stew? 😁

  • Reply Dufffaaa93 November 19, 2019 at 8:33 pm

    Man, you out did yourself with this video.

  • Reply stopdropandroll November 19, 2019 at 8:35 pm


  • Reply Aram Hăvărneanu November 19, 2019 at 8:36 pm

    What about straight gelatin?

  • Reply Uryendel November 19, 2019 at 8:37 pm

    You can use apple for thickening, work pretty well with curry

  • Reply Endmylife NOW November 19, 2019 at 8:38 pm

    It always catches me off guard when he hits the perfect switch from the video to the sponsor.

  • Reply FrostyKatKit November 19, 2019 at 8:38 pm

    Why i season my sauce thickener and not my sauce.

  • Reply Cole O'Malley November 19, 2019 at 8:40 pm


  • Reply Jake McNeal November 19, 2019 at 8:40 pm

    i was literally about to comment about how much you remind me of Alton Brown. he was my favorite as a kid. then you directly addressed him. thank adam

  • Reply Lava Tasche November 19, 2019 at 8:40 pm

    Holy shit this video is insanly good

  • Reply abdal-rahman nawar November 19, 2019 at 8:41 pm

    Our sauce is THICC

  • Reply snoozleblob November 19, 2019 at 8:43 pm

    I've used all but xanthum gum (and agar agar too since I've only used it for jelly) but very willy nilly without rhyme or reason, unless I wanted a dough that cooked clear then I use tapioca. Now you've provided reason! Thanks.

  • Reply Ross McCartan November 19, 2019 at 8:43 pm

    I love this video

  • Reply Ran Jones November 19, 2019 at 8:44 pm

    I wasn't trying to learn anything today but I did. Thanks.

  • Reply Brady Brown November 19, 2019 at 8:45 pm

    If I could subscribe twice, after this episode I would.

  • Reply Denis Lemos November 19, 2019 at 8:46 pm

    Such a great video! Awesome work

  • Reply Imbes November 19, 2019 at 8:46 pm


  • Reply Brian Heinz November 19, 2019 at 8:52 pm

    Well this could be the beginning of a whole series of explaining how to cook with weird things you find on your local grocery store shelf.

  • Reply 8 Bit Brody November 19, 2019 at 8:54 pm

    Adam just learned the word “reputed” and wants us all to know how well he learned it.

  • Reply Panda-s1 November 19, 2019 at 8:54 pm

    wait potato starch was in the jewish food section the entire time???? what

  • Reply TheRedKnight November 19, 2019 at 8:55 pm

    What about cricket flour?

  • Reply Ryan Elliott November 19, 2019 at 8:57 pm

    Why I season my flour, not my gravy

  • Reply NACHO NATION November 19, 2019 at 8:58 pm

    Does anyone know the video where Adam gets a sponsorship with a coffee brand? I’m looking for it, but I can’t find it.

  • Reply dufesewer November 19, 2019 at 8:58 pm

    Hey Adam, just so you know, it’s pronounced like “you-cuh” not “yuh-cuh”!

  • Reply Philboh8 November 19, 2019 at 9:00 pm

    I think most people in Ireland and the UK just use Bisto granules, boiling water and whatever natural gravy formed from the dish being made

  • Reply SweetNote #IAMNOTALONE November 19, 2019 at 9:06 pm

    Love rice flour and or potato starch to use in place for flour

  • Reply Nisse0906 November 19, 2019 at 9:06 pm

    But isn’t agar made by boiling gelatin for like a day, or did i make that up in my head?

  • Reply AnyWho November 19, 2019 at 9:07 pm

    i never have used flour to thick gravy's … i always use corn starch

  • Reply Angel November 19, 2019 at 9:08 pm

    Never in my life I thought Ray J would be funding Adam's Thanksgiving addiction

  • Reply fanis kaparaliotis November 19, 2019 at 9:09 pm

    Get the gluten out the damn GRAVY

  • Reply Ken Williams November 19, 2019 at 9:10 pm

    My mom is a Celiac and has been diagnosed for about the past 15 years or so. Thankfully due to morons thinking it's a diet instead of "Eat gluten and you will crap blood and die" which is what it really is, there have been major advances in the world of gluten free cooking options. My hands down go to flour replacement is Pillsbury Best Multi-Purpose Gluten Free Flour Blend, it's not quite like flour but it's close enough to where I have made cookies with it and no one suspected they were gluten free. I use it to make gravy and also deep fry chicken (with some added corn starch and a pinch of baking powder). Yes, I know I sound like a commercial but it's really great stuff.

  • Reply prod. absxnt November 19, 2019 at 9:10 pm

    do more gluten-free celiac friendly recipes!!

  • Reply Chandler Butcher November 19, 2019 at 9:12 pm

    Great video, Adam! I love you!

  • Reply BulletFever1 November 19, 2019 at 9:15 pm

    2:33 is he right about the cornstarch being called cornflour in the UK? As a brit I've been trying to figure it out but found sweet bugger all for conclusive information

  • Reply Daniel Shin November 19, 2019 at 9:19 pm

    Me: Looking for a can opener

  • Reply TheKosmicStarfruit L November 19, 2019 at 9:19 pm

    I thought I was watching good eats with those visual tools

  • Reply Dashin 110 November 19, 2019 at 9:23 pm

    Adam: prepares us for thanksgiving
    Canadians: sad early thanksgiving noises

  • Reply skullrider56YT November 19, 2019 at 9:24 pm

    Boring vid

  • Reply creme brulelelelele November 19, 2019 at 9:25 pm

    The slurry is used the most here in the philippines. We put it in our sauces and dishes that has a thick soup

  • Reply Rayyan Mistry November 19, 2019 at 9:25 pm

    i love how anytime he pulls out an ingredient he says the British dialect if there is one

    long live the empire

  • Reply depressedhamburger November 19, 2019 at 9:28 pm

    This is super useful I’m not allergic to gluten anymore but my family still is

  • Reply John Smith November 19, 2019 at 9:31 pm

    Adam, have you ever tried a fried chicken neck?

  • Reply Mai Bastiaens November 19, 2019 at 9:31 pm

    I still don’t understand the oil, finger and chicken at the end of every video. Can anyone explain?

  • Reply aynie E November 19, 2019 at 9:31 pm

    I really like these experimental videos. Also, loving the pipecleaners demonstration!

  • Reply Mark B November 19, 2019 at 9:31 pm

    Fuckin hydrophobes. WE SEE YOU

  • Reply Johnny B Bad November 19, 2019 at 9:32 pm

    Adam Ragusea = Alton Brown's nerdiness + CGP Grey's voice

  • Reply Jacob Bentley November 19, 2019 at 9:32 pm

    Does anyone else want to know the reason Adam knows so much about Britain?

    Yours Sincerely,
    A Brit

  • Reply Bob Weaver November 19, 2019 at 9:41 pm

    How to separate chefs from short-order cooks… xanthan gum

  • Reply All Day Son November 19, 2019 at 9:45 pm

    Don’t get Raycons. They literally have every small youtuber pushing their product. And it sucks! You can find a pair on amazon for 30
    Bucks that are way better

  • Reply Marguerite Linford November 19, 2019 at 9:45 pm

    I love your videos! I have a way to restore gravy made with wheat flour after being refrigerated! I just put it in a pan and add a little Worcester sauce to liven it up a bit!

  • Reply Johnny B Bad November 19, 2019 at 9:46 pm

    I did your Roast Chicken/Mashed Potato recipe with Rice Flower Roux for the gravy just a couple days ago. Absolutely delicious and couldn't tell it wasn't wheat flour.

  • Reply Rodje November 19, 2019 at 9:49 pm

    Tapioca is also used for normal meals with things like ham, some turkey, cream cheese etc. Its something that we brazillians enjoy a lot. Ótimo vídeo como sempre, Adam!

  • Reply Jonathan Sharret November 19, 2019 at 9:49 pm

    Would love a video on how to make sauces without butter. Do any non-butter alternatives work?

  • Reply Nasif Mk November 19, 2019 at 9:50 pm

    Many myths debunked!

  • Reply Arctic ASMR November 19, 2019 at 9:50 pm

    1:17 T H I C C

  • Reply Joshua Pearce November 19, 2019 at 9:50 pm

    What I learned is that if I use xanthan gum, I may not need to wait so long to shove shepard's pie in my pie hole.

  • Reply Mihai Soare November 19, 2019 at 9:52 pm

    I don't use the Roux method,i'm a CFOP person.

  • Reply ZooD333 November 19, 2019 at 9:53 pm

    Never heard of 'gravy browning' before, sounds awful! BBC Good Food says it was used here (UK) in the first half of the twentieth century, but is barely used at all anymore – I can see why!

  • Reply Jarcies November 19, 2019 at 9:53 pm

    wow this episode of good eats is so good

  • Reply SadButtMunch November 19, 2019 at 9:54 pm

    I love the longer vids

  • Reply Chu November 19, 2019 at 9:55 pm



  • Reply Google User November 19, 2019 at 9:55 pm

    Wtf is that gravy browning stuff. I've lived in the UK for 20 years and never heard of it

  • Reply TheHenrik098 November 19, 2019 at 9:56 pm

    You didn't talk about all the other liaisons (thickening agents in French) – like emulsified butter, blood, egg yolk etc.
    How do you feel about exploring other thickening techniques other than roux? I'm a chef myself.
    Other than that: great video!

  • Reply LizardKingZee November 19, 2019 at 9:57 pm

    Corn starch is the easiest.

  • Reply RedTPC November 19, 2019 at 10:00 pm

    Bruh as a coeliac i did not know it was a disease lmfao

  • Reply Rebekah Redford November 19, 2019 at 10:00 pm

    Julien Solomita has entered the chat

  • Reply Albert Nave November 19, 2019 at 10:01 pm

    What about gelatin?

  • Reply Alyssa Stevens November 19, 2019 at 10:06 pm

    I was expecting "blending vegetables" not other flour options lol.

  • Reply Alyssa Stevens November 19, 2019 at 10:08 pm

    Yes, arrowroot if using too much can get slimy. Similar to flaxseed egg mixture.

  • Reply Aniya's Channel November 19, 2019 at 10:08 pm

    Speaking of corn starch, there is this japanese youtuber who can't touch corn starch at all

  • Reply BinarySecond November 19, 2019 at 10:10 pm

    Never seen gravy browning in my life and I live in gravy country

  • Reply Alyssa Stevens November 19, 2019 at 10:11 pm

    Lmao at the agar experiment

  • Reply Alyssa Stevens November 19, 2019 at 10:11 pm

    Yeah agar is good for makeshift iceream

  • Reply Mohd Ashfak Uddin Khan November 19, 2019 at 10:12 pm

    Really informative

  • Reply Force November 19, 2019 at 10:13 pm

    What about low calorie sauces ?

  • Reply Shuckle November 19, 2019 at 10:13 pm

    Just add 3 pounds of tomato paste

  • Reply Sudd3rNightcore_ November 19, 2019 at 10:16 pm

    Came for the gravy
    Stayed for the science lesson

  • Reply Christopher M November 19, 2019 at 10:16 pm

    I haven't loved a video so much since Alton Brown went off the air! Terrific job, Adam! I really enjoy the technical information you include in your videos, especially this one!

  • Reply Matthew20415 November 19, 2019 at 10:19 pm

    6:40 WHY are people including you referring to flavours as "chemically"!!!!
    Chemicals are in almost everything on earth but now the words being flung around to describe an unusual taste! This needs to stop

  • Reply Beatriz Fernandes November 19, 2019 at 10:21 pm

    Yes Adam, you used waaaaaay too much agar agar

  • Reply Karen November 19, 2019 at 10:23 pm

    Don’t come for my gravy browning adam just don’t

  • Reply Alyssa Stevens November 19, 2019 at 10:26 pm

    I know this isnt about cooking but Can you please talk about the YouTube coppa deal? AND PLEASE mention it's not about government censorship but about how YouTube sold kids personal information for profit illegally and the new shit youtubers have to do is the the response YOUTUBE is making so they put the liability on youtubers and avoid fines for continuing to sell kids personal info

  • Reply Dictionary November 19, 2019 at 10:26 pm

    I know you didn't mean anything by it Adam but try not to say Jews and instead try Jewish, Jews comes off as a slur to some Jewish people

  • Reply TheJayfa November 19, 2019 at 10:27 pm

    Agar will melt when exposed to heat. In fact, it will melt and reset after the application of heat indefinitely, unlike gelatin.

    Another property it has which is different to gelatin is that it will set at room temperature, and this gives a different texture to agar which sets in the fridge.

  • Reply Auralan November 19, 2019 at 10:28 pm

    I love love love how much research and detail you managed to put into this video, without making it very long! The one thing I'm missing, though, is some kind of comparison chart at the end. Perhaps you could do a blog sometime where you go over some details from your videos?

  • Reply acrophobe November 19, 2019 at 10:29 pm

    "Whether you're cooking for someone with Celiac's disease, or you're just……one of those people"

  • Reply Shadsy The Hedgehog November 19, 2019 at 10:31 pm

    Lol what are you on? I'm from the UK and never even heard of 'Gravy Browning'

  • Reply Joe M November 19, 2019 at 10:33 pm

    As a UK northerner (we basically drink gravy) and I have never seen that gravy browning water u got there

  • Reply Bernard November 19, 2019 at 10:34 pm

    Very interesting video, Adam, thank you! I will definitely try out some starches.

  • Reply BuySightstonePls November 19, 2019 at 10:35 pm

    Jesus Christ Adam the amount of effort you put into these videos is nuts!

  • Reply Lam Cao November 19, 2019 at 10:35 pm

    Extra THICC pls

  • Reply Rabbit November 19, 2019 at 10:40 pm

    I always find myself binge watching these sort of videos.

  • Reply FunkyHackerCat November 19, 2019 at 10:45 pm

    Why I thicken my starch not my sauce

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